Wheat Producing and Wheat Processing Technology Detailed Introduction
Wheat is the world's output second food crop, only second to maize, it is a widely grown crop in the world. Wheat contains starch, protein, fat, minerals, calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin A, it is one of the staple food of mankind. After the wheat grinding into flour to make bread, biscuits and other food, Steamed Buns, it also can be fermented into beer, alcohol, vodka or biomass fuel.
There are many wheat production countries in the world, but mainly concentrated in India, China, America, Russia, Canada, Australia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Argentina and other countries, Wheat production in these 9 countries accounted for more than 60% of the world's total output. Among them, China's wheat production ranks first in the world, followed by India, the United States and Russia.
From the distribution of the continents, wheat production is mainly concentrated in Asia, accounting for about 45% of the world's wheat planting area, followed by Europe, accounting for 25%, 15% of the Americas, Africa, Oceania and South America each accounted for about 5%, the distribution of wheat yield and the proportion of the area are roughly the same.
Asia and Europe are both the continents and the consuming continents, but the Asia production can not meet the needs, so it needs a lot of imports; North America (including the United States) and Oceania, although output is not very high, but the proportion of the consumption is low, mostly for export; African production is the lowest, but consumption is relatively high, need a large number of imports; Total production and consumption in South America was essentially flat. Therefore, the consumption of wheat is global, there are about 40% people in the world with wheat as the staple food. The structure of wheat supply and demand determines the characteristics of the world wheat trade: wide trading range, large trading volume, more participating countries.
3.Wheat Producing Countries Situation In The World
The United States is one of the world's major wheat producing countries, but because wheat planting efficiency is lower than that of maize and soybean, the planting area of wheat in the United States fell for 7 consecutive years since 1997. But at present, the United States is still the world's first wheat power country.
Wheat in the United States can be divided into winter wheat and spring wheat according to the planting season, winter wheat planting area accounted for 70%-80%, whether planting and harvesting time, or the proportion of winter and spring wheat is not much difference with China. According to the end use, the wheat of United States will be divided into six major categories: hard red winter(HRW), hard red spring(HRS),soft red winter(SRW),Durum, Hard white(HW), Soft White(SW).
The Canadian wheat planting area is 1 million -133 hm2 million, mainly concentrated in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Albert. Spring wheat accounted for about 80%, 20% ~ 15% of the hard grain wheat, winter wheat accounted for only 3%-4%. Wheat yield level is not high, only 2250kg, winter wheat yield is relatively high, only 3600kg. Wheat is usually sown in late May to early June, and can be harvested in late August, the vast majority is Spring Wheat. It has high degree of mechanization, from spraying to sowing, harvesting, fertilization, it is the use of mechanical equipment. Generally based on family farm management, the operating scale of each household in the eastern region averaged 80hm2, with an average of 300hm2 in the west of the prairie Province.
Although is not an important wheat producer, but it is an important wheat exporter. In a good harvest year, wheat production is only about 30000000 tons. However, due to the small population of Canada, more than 60% of wheat production can be used for export trade, In about 1 million tons of wheat trade of the world, Canada accounting for about 20%, it is the world's third largest exporter. The main grain area is mainly distributed in the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manny Tor Ba, accounting for more than eighty percent of the country. Canada's Great Plains wheat crop harvest period generally begins at the end of July and end at the October.
Wheat is Australia's most important food crops, about 1200 ~ 14 million hm2 per year, total production accounted for 3%. of the total world wheat production. Every year from 5 to July early sowing, October to January of next year, the harvest. However, due to the drought in Australia, more than 70% of the semi-arid area, irrigation area is very small (less than 4%), and almost no use of any fertilizer, therefore, wheat yield is very low, the average yield of the wheat in a normal year only 1500 to 1800kg, the highest year is only 2250 kg. There are about 40 thousand farms in Australia to grow wheat, basically to the family business primarily, the average size of 900hm2. The implementation for a year, and there is a considerable area of leisure land.
Australia is a typical trading country, about 80% of the wheat for export, the annual export volume is 10 million to 12 million tons, accounting for 10% of world trade, it is one of the world's largest wheat exporter. Australia is located in the southern hemisphere, the wheat harvest season is the most producer's off-season, therefore, the Australian wheat in the international market competition has a seasonal advantage.
Australia attaches great importance to the quality of wheat. Its control measures are: First, the new variety breeding, the process of quality control. From parents, each generation of selection and identification of the process are using a more stringent control measures. Second, the quality control of new varieties in the process of promotion. According to test data released a list of recommended quality wheat varieties and varieties of analysis results of each year, for the grower to choice. Third, strict quality control of the acquisition. The acquisition of the wheat at least 3 times to go through strict quality inspection. Another key factor is to ensure quality storage conditions: From the port to the basic level of the acquisition station are using the standard metal warehouse, stand off the ground, strictly closed, and application of insect repellent.
Wheat is the largest crop in France, and its growing area accounts for 50% of the food crops, wheat production ranks fifth in the world. Almost all of the wheat grown in France is winter wheat, planting time is generally from 15th October to 15th November, the harvest season is in July to August of next year. French wheat color is orange yellow, almost no white wheat. Due to climate suitability, the yield of French wheat is very high, with an average of 480kg/hm2.
France is the world's fourth largest wheat exporter and the largest exporter of flour, it is also the largest wheat producer and exporter in the European Union. In 1999, for example, the French wheat yield of 36 million tons, exports of wheat and flour 17 million tons, accounting for about 50% of the EU wheat exports. Although the quality of French wheat can not compete with the United States and Canada and Australia's bread wheat, but because the price of French wheat is at least $40 cheaper than the u.s., Asian Importers gradually abandoned the high prices of the United States wheat and Australian wheat, while the French wheat as an alternative.
In recent years, the wheat planting area in India has not changed much, but the per unit area yield increased greatly, output has increased from 2250 kg/hm2 in 1995 to 2002 2775kg/hm2, total production increased from 65.77 million tons to 71.81 million tons, added about 600 thousand tons. Total production in 2002 reached 76.37 million tons, the total output is second only to China, become worthy of the name of the world's second wheat superpower. In recent years, India wheat production reached 90 million tons.
The sowing of Winter Wheat in India usually begins in October, and accelerated in the first half of November and the first half of December. India wheat harvest usually begins at the end of March or the first week of April. The international competitiveness of India wheat export has increased continuously. The mainly of India's wheat exports is feed, major export countries including Korea, Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia and other countries and the Middle East.
4. Wheat Processing Technology
The general design plan will include full processing from raw wheat receiving system to final flour storage. The crude wheat will be stored into steel storehouse by conveyor. The wheat pre-cleaning system, wheat blending system , flour milling system, flour blending system, flour packing system, etc. will also be included.
(2)Wheat milling technology
As a general, wheat will be processed into wheat flour by flour milling equipment, its general technology flowchart will be include crude wheat storage by storehouse, wheat pre-cleaning, wheat cleaning, wheat dampering, flour milling, flour blending, flour packing and wheat flour storage. The final products of wheat flour milling plant will be 65%~80% wheat flour and 20%~22% wheat bran.
In the crude wheat storage system, the conveyor will be needed, such as bucket elevator. In the cleaning system, in order to ensure the quality of flour, three times of wheat cleaning process is needed, in the process, you may need plansifter, grain screener & cleaner, destoner, suction separator, wheat cleaner & dryer, atomizing dampener, permanent magnetic drum, etc. In the milling system, the flour mill machine, automatic feeding machine, flour mixer and packing machine will be needed. There are also some other equipment, such as fan, rotary feeder, etc.
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